New Delhi: In the financial world, Mutual Funds have emerged as a favorite investment vehicle for investors, owing to their potential for good returns and the variety they offer.
A mutual fund is a market-linked product that pools money from several investors to invest in diversified assets such as equities, bonds, and short-term debt. In India, Mutual Funds have evolved significantly, offering a broad spectrum of investment options tailored to investors’ varied risk profiles and investment goals.
Classification of mutual funds based on structure Mutual funds can broadly be classified into Open-ended, Close-ended, and Interval funds.
- Open-ended funds
Open-ended funds offer unlimited opportunities for investors to enter or exit the fund, providing much-needed liquidity. Their shares are bought and sold on demand at their net asset value (NAV), calculated at the end of each trading day.
2. Close-ended funds
Close-ended funds are structured differently, offering a fixed number of shares for a specific period. These funds are listed on the stock exchange, and their market price may vary from their NAV, introducing an additional level of risk and opportunity.
3. Interval funds
Interval funds are a hybrid variant, combining the features of both open and close-ended funds. They allow investors to transact at specified intervals, providing a blend of liquidity and stability.
Classification of Mutual Funds by Asset Class
- Equity Funds
Equity funds predominantly invest in stocks of various companies. Depending upon their investment strategy and the companies they target, they are further classified into large-cap, mid-cap, small-cap, focused, and ELSS. For instance, large-cap funds invest in established companies with a track record of stable returns, while mid and small-cap funds target emerging companies with higher growth (and risk) potential. Equity-linked Saving Scheme (ELSS) funds offer tax benefits under Section 80C of the Income Tax Act.
2. Debt Funds
Debt funds invest in fixed-income instruments like government and corporate bonds, treasury bills etc. They include categories like low-duration, liquid, overnight, credit risk, gilt funds and others, each offering varying degrees of risk and return.
3. Hybrid Funds
Hybrid funds aim to balance risk and reward by investing in a mix of equities and debt. There are balanced funds, aggressive funds, multi-asset allocation funds, and others, each offering a unique risk-return proposition based on their asset allocation.
4. Solution-oriented funds
Solution-oriented funds are designed with a specific goal in mind, such as retirement, children’s education, or marriage.
5. Other Funds
Index funds mirror a specific index’s performance, like the Nifty or Sensex, aiming to replicate its returns. Fund of funds (FoFs) invests in other mutual funds, providing an extra layer of diversification.
Understanding the different types of mutual funds is essential for making informed investment decisions.
The selection should be in alignment with individual financial goals, risk appetite, and investment horizon.
Risk and returns go hand in hand, and striking the right balance is key to a successful investment strategy.